So after successfully launching on iOS (the app got approved by Apple the first submit 🎉), my next target was Google Play. I had the app running fine in debug mode on Android, but somehow it failed to run after being compiled to a release bundle.
Luckily, I could ask my colleague who's an experienced Android developer for suggestions on how to debug. With his help, I used Logcat to identify the culprit. Somehow during the minification of the bundle, classes that are needed to run the app got lost. I simply disabled minification and it worked fine. The app bundle size is still small, so it's not really an issue now.
I submitted the bundle to Google and after a week or so it was published on the Google Play store. 🙌